1. Ditch your smartphone
Studies show that up to 60 per cent of adults keep their mobile phones in the bedroom at night.
You’re more likely to stay up too late texting, emailing or using social media, and consequently feel drowsy the next day.
“We know from research that using one app leads to another, so you are likely to spend more time on your mobile phone than you have intended to,” says Liese Exelmans, a researcher at the School for Mass Communication Research at the University of Leuven, Belgium.
“People over 60 who use their mobile phones at night have a shorter sleep duration.”
Older people are more likely to be morning persons, with a biological tendency to wake up earlier, or they may need to rise early for work or other activities.
Sleep experts recommend against bringing phones into the bedroom, but this is unrealistic for adults who use their phones as alarm clocks and who want to feel connected to friends through their devices.
“Many people have a feeling that they are disconnected from the real world if their phone is not in the bedroom,” Exelmans says. “It triggers hypervigilance. You are not completely at rest, because you expect to be contacted sometime during the night. It’s the fear of missing out.”
Donny Soh, 38, of Singapore, experienced this phenomenon first-hand. When his company launched a new product in 2016, he’d wake up at all hours to see if anyone had placed online orders.
“I would wake up perhaps three to four times per night,” says Soh, who admits that an attitude change helped him reclaim his slumber.
“Regardless of how awake I am or how often I check my phone, it doesn’t really affect the sales, and since this realisation, sleep[ing] got much better.”
The blue light that smartphones emit can also negatively impact sleep. Blue light mimics daylight, so the body is discouraged from producing sleep-inducing melatonin at bedtime, which promotes drowsiness.
“The blue light emitted by mobile phones inhibits melatonin output, telling your body to stay awake,” Exelmans says.
Adding an app with a blue-light filter can help. If you’re unwilling to part with your mobile phone overnight, minimise interruptions and encourage sleep by activating night-time blackout periods, so that no calls, emails, texts or notifications get through.
“Keep it on flight mode, dim your screen and place it on silent mode,” Exelmans says.
“Or remove some apps: Facebook, work email – it discourages you from spending time on it.” Computers and TVs emit the same blue light that smartphones do.
Best to keep computers and TVs out of the bedroom, and turn them off one to two hours before bedtime.
And if you wake up in the middle of the night, refrain from turning to a screen. Says Exelmans, “Read a book, not a tablet.”
2. Put your feet up
Is your night-time slumber interrupted by urgent bathroom visits?
You may have a little-known condition called nocturia, which awakens people from a sound sleep two or more times per night with the strong urge to urinate.
As many as three out of five older adults suffer from nocturia, which negatively impacts sleep.
“Even in people who fall asleep easily again,” says Dr Philip E.V. Van Kerrebroeck, professor of urology at Maastricht University in the Netherlands, “the interruption of sleep disrupts the normal sleep patterns and can have general health consequences: high blood pressure, diabetes. And it can have an impact on cognitive function.”
Nocturia isn’t a disease; rather, it’s a symptom of conditions like sleep apnoea, male prostate problems and lower oestrogen levels in women.
Many people assume that it’s a normal part of ageing. “With ageing, there are problems that install themselves, but the night is to sleep and not to pee,” Van Kerrebroeck says.
“Sleep is a protective mechanism. An elderly individual has the right to a healthy life.” Lifestyle changes may help: drinking no more than two litres of liquid daily, curtailing in the evenings; avoiding caffeine and alcohol for six hours before bedtime; taking diuretics in the morning or early afternoon, rather than later in the day; and elevating your legs. When you put your feet up before bedtime, it pushes the fluids that have accumulated around your ankles back into the bloodstream, allowing you to urinate out the excess fluid while you’re awake.
If you don’t elevate your legs until you slip into bed, the excess fluid becomes urine while you sleep, leading to night-time awakenings. How long you’ll need to sit with your feet up depends upon your personal health.
“With varicose veins or oedema, it may take longer for the fluids to return,” Van Kerrebroeck says. “There’s no problem to do it for two hours. For many people, half an hour might be too limited.”
Many people can improve nocturia with lifestyle changes, but for those who cannot, research has shown that the drug desmopressin can cut the number of nightly bathroom visits in half for 30-40 per cent of older adults, significantly improving sleep quality.
3. Do the downward-facing dog
A recent study from the University of Washington found that older women who did yoga for two months reported considerably less insomnia.
The gentle motions and poses may help reduce stress levels and improve blood flow, which makes it easier to sleep.
“Look for the kind of yoga in which the breath is really involved,” says Versailles-based yoga teacher Laurence Maman, a member of the teachers’ trainers’ college of the Institut Francais de Yoga, affiliated with the European Union of Yoga.
“By using exhalations rather than inhalations, you can influence the relaxation effect.”
The relaxation response or effect has been shown to lower blood-pressure levels, reduce stress and encourage sleepiness.
Maman recommends practicing yoga for 15 or 20 minutes before bedtime, choosing a lying-down position that emphasises relaxed breathing. “It can quickly have an effect on sleep quality.”
When Jodi O’Donnell-Ames turned 50 this year, she started waking at 3am nightly, unable to fall back to sleep.
The long-time yoga practitioner turned to yoga for help.
“I used to practice power yoga more for cardio than for relaxation,” O’Donnell-Ames says.
“I added gentle yoga flow to my weekly routine. It took two weeks to see a consistent difference.”