Nosebleeds (or epistaxis) are fairly common, especially in children. They usually happen as a result of a minor injury, nose picking, or nose blowing. Occasionally, nosebleeds can signal underlying illness or injury. Very rarely, a nosebleed can be life-threatening, especially in older people. Treating a nosebleed incorrectly can prolong bleeding and make things worse. Follow these five steps to handle a nosebleed.
1. Sit the patient down.
Ask them to lean forwards (not backwards) so that the blood drains away from the nose, not down the throat. Wear disposable gloves if you have them to protect yourself and the patient.
2. Pinch the nose.
Tell the patient to breathe through their mouth and pinch the soft part of their nose to help reduce blood flow, blocking the nostrils. He or she can lean over a sink or a bowl so that they can spit out any blood as swallowing it can make them sick. Advise them not to sniff, swallow, or cough, as it can disturb the clots that are forming.
3. Check the nose.
After ten minutes, release the pressure and check the nose. If still bleeding, pinch the nose for another ten minutes.
4. Offer a cold compress.
Give the patient an ice or cold pack to hold against the bridge of their nose to help reduce blood flow.
5. Check the nose again.
Once the bleeding has stopped, let the patient clean around their nose with a damp cloth. Tell them not to blow their nose and avoid strenuous activity for up to 12 hours.